Friday 22 July 2022

JAIN LITERATURE- জৈন সাহিত্য

                                  JAIN LITERATURE

Apart from writing in Prakrit and Ardha Magadhi, Jain monks wrote in many other languages depending on the era, region and the patrons who supported them. They wrote in Tamil during the Sangam Age in south India.they also wrote in Sanskrit,Shauraseni,Gujarat, and marathi.

   They can be brodly divided into two major catergories; Canonical or religious texts called Jain Agamas or Agam and non-cononical literary works.

★Jain Agamas

  They are the sacred texts and are said to be the teachings of the Jain tirthankars. They are said to be orginally compiled by the Gandharas who were immediate of Mahavira.these texts are important for Svetambaras.

The present Anges are said to re-compiled in a council of monks of Svetambaras sect held in Vallabhi(Gujarat) during mid-5th century AD. The Digambara sect belives that original teachings were lost long ago and they do not accpt the authority of Agamas compiled in valabhi.

Agamas comprised of 46 texts. They are 12 Angas, 12 Upanga, 10 Prakirnakas, 4 Mulasutrs,6 Chedasutra, 2 Chulika Sutra.

They were written in Ardha-Magadhi Prakrit languages. The Angas teach reverence for all forms of life, strict codes of vegetarianism, asceticism, compassion and non-violence. 

The 12 Angas are: 

      1. Acharanga Sutra: Oldest agama

      2. Sutrakritanga: describes code of conduct for jain monks,metaphysics etc.

      3. Sthananga Sutra.

      4. Samavayanga Sutra: discussion on esence of Jainism, astronomy,  mathematics, etc

      5. Vyakhyaprajnapti or Bhagvati Sutra

      6. Jnatrdharma Katha.

      7. Upasakadasa 

      8. Antakrddaasah

      9. Anuttaraupapatikadasah.

    10. Prasnavyakaranani: Description of sins.

    11. Vipakasruta: stories and illustrations.

    12. Drstivada: contained 14 Purvas.

Digambaras gave sacred status to two works: the Karmaprabhrita (discussion on karma) or Shatkhandagama and the Kashayaprabhrita.

some other important Jain works and authors are:

      * Bhadrabahu (3rd century BC) is one of the greatest Jain monks and was the teacher of Chandragupta Maurya. He wrote the sacred Uvasaggaharam Stotra, Kalpa Sutra ( Biographies of Jain Tirthankars). He was thepioneer of the Digambara sect.

      * Acharya Kundkund's Samayasara and Niyamasara discusses the Jain philosophy.

      * Samanta Bhadra's Ratna Karanda Sravakachara (Life of a Jaina householder) and Aptamimansa was written around 2nd century AD.

      * Ilango Adigal's Silappadikaram considered one of the greatest epics of Tamil literature written in 2nd century AD, is a moralistic discourse. It revolves around Kannagi, who having lost her husband to a miscarriage of justice at the court of the Pandyan Dynasty, wreaks her revenge on his kingdom.

   * Tirutakkatevar's Civaka Cinramani is also one of the epics of Tamil literature.

     * Nalatiyar, an ancient Tamil text was written by Jain monks.

     * Umasvati's Tattvartha-sutra(1st-2nd century AD) is an important jain work in Sanskrit on logic, epistemology, ethics, and astronomy.
* Jinasena (8th-9th centuries) was a revered Digamabar monk. He wrote Mahapurana and Harivamshapurana. He was the disciple of another famous Jain monk Virasena.

    * Haribhadra Suri (6th century AD) a Jain author wrote in Sanskrit.

    * Hemachandra Suri(12th century), a famous scholar wrote grammars of Sanskrit and Prakrit.

Universities of Valabhi and Kalinga were important centers of learning for Jain's before they declined.

Between 9th-12th centuries, Jain monks wrote extensively in Kannada. The three gems of Kannada literature Pampa, ponna and Ranna are the famous writers related to Jainism with the revival of Hinduism and spreading of Lingayats in Karnataka, popularity of Jainism declined this a reduction in literary works was seen after 12th-13th centuries.